History of Organic Agriculture: A Review of Related Studies

in #education5 years ago (edited)

Review of Related Studies


For many decades passed, farmers in the Philippines have been using pesticides, chemical fertilizers and growth regulators in their crop production even the high cost of these inputs as mentioned by Teodoro Mendoza in his study[1]. RodelMaghirang, Reynaldo de la Cruz and Reynaldo Villareal research on How Sustainable is Organic Agriculture in the Philippines gives a perspective on Organic agriculture as an additional option to conventional or “chemical’’ agriculture and not just for niche market. In addition they also give a concrete definition on sustainable Agriculture and Organic one as

“Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just and humane. Organic agriculture on the other hand is organic agricultural production system that promotes environmentally, socially and economically sound production of foods and fibers and excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, livestock feed additives and genetically modified organisms.”[2]


On the other hand, a study by Maria Lourdes Edano and Oscar Zamora on Farmer’s Approach to Conversion from Conventional to Sustainable Agricultureshows an essentialresult that among the factors which they classified as economic, environmental, socio-political and cultural aspect. The economic consideration was the most significant why farmers convert to sustainable farming. In addition farmers started gradual process in shifting to sustainable agriculture[3].Furthermore a Collaborative research on the Prospect and Challenges in Promoting Organic Agriculture in the Upland Communities in the Philippinesmade by Leila Landicho, Roselyn Paelmo, Rowena Cabahug, Roberto Visco and Maryanne Abadillos emphasizes the 3 challenges and dilemmas in Organic Agriculture which are the lack of financial budget and technical capacity of smallholder farmers to meet the criteria required by the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, second the problem emerging marketing arrangement with the traders and lastly, the insufficient supply of organic inputs and fetilizers[4].


Meanwhile, the beginning of modern organic agriculture movement in the Philippines can be traced in the midst of 1980 and further development followed throughout the years as noted by RodelioCarating and Silvino Tejada in the Sustainable Organic Agriculture in the Philippines: History and Success.[5] AbreyEdpanin Organic Farming Adoption: A Probability Analysis concludes that the high level of consciousness and awareness are significant predictors of organic farming adoption and thus intensify undertaking of farmer’s knowledge on different aspect of organic agriculture[6].Thus, because of the growing popularity, consumers of Organic foods are having a high expectations for their benefits in terms of the environmental, health safety, nutrition and the product itself as stated by Ying Wu, Li Wang and AnkitPatras inSafety, Nutrition, and Health Aspects of Organic Food[7].



[1]Medoza, T. Nature Farming in the Philippines.University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines.2015. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242064817_Nature_Farming_in_the_Philippines

[2]Maghirang, R. Dela Cruz, R.&Villareal R. How Sustainable is Organic Agriculture in the Philippines?.University of the Philippines, Los Banos( NA) Retrieved from http://www.nast.ph/images/pdf%20files/Publications/NAST%20Transactions/NAST%202011%20Transactions%20Volume%2033%20Issue%20No.%202/4%20How%20Sustainable%20is%20Organic%20Agriculture%20in%20the%20Phils%20Rodel%20G.%20Maghirang%20et%20al.pdf

[3]Edano, M.& Zamora, O.Farmer’s Approach to Conversion from Conventional to Sustainable Agriculture.University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines.20o7. Retrieved fromhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/279531679_Farmer%27s_approach_to_conversion_from_conventional_to_sustainable_agriculture_Philippine_Journal_of_Crop_Science_322_63-76

[4]Landicho, L. Paelmo, R. Cabahug, R Visco, R &Abadillos, M.Prospect and Challenges in Promoting Organic Agriculture in the Upland Communities in the Philippines.University of the Philippines, Los Banos.2014. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ipcbee.com/vol67/012-ICFSN2014-N1008.pdf

[5]Carating, R. & Tejada, S.Sustainable Organic Agriculture in the Philippines: History and Success. University of the Philippines, Diliman.2012. Retrieved fromhttps://www.slideshare.net/x3G9/adx86-38041724

[6]Edpan, A. Organic Farming Adoption: A Probability Analysis. University of Southeastern Philippines.2016. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315574098_Organic_farming_adoption_A_probability_analysis

[7] Wu, Y. Wang, L. Patras, A. Safety, Nutrition, and Health Aspects of Organic Food. College of Agriculture, Human and Natural Sciences, Nashville,Tennessee.2016. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26803-3_4

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