Up to now, the path regarding the location of any type of radiation or energy manifestations of electromagnetic or corpuscular nature has been long, but really full of great knowledge, knowledge that we as a human species have been able to adopt in essential activities of our daily life.
We know that with the use of the indispensable tool of science this objective has been achieved, however, the task is still ongoing, today the whole field of science radiates constant knowledge to the rest of all those areas that in one way or another have to do with our advanced development, and if we name one of these areas, no doubt, we have to express that the nexus between science and technology has allowed us to be what we are today.
In relation to the above, we can continue affirming that technological advances and creations are nothing more than applied science, and that without a doubt, both electromagnetic and corpuscular radiations play a fundamental role, and this we could verify with the study or analysis of our referential fraction, that is, white or visible light, and from there we can assure that man has managed to know in depth more about his natural environment, and also to put it into practice, for our well-being.
Although there are many enigmas to be solved, however, with the understanding of the phenomenon of light, many of these enigmas have been cleared, since without light nothing would be possible, although this phenomenon depends equally on another intrinsic phenomenon such as movement, and our existence is proof of such essential importance of the phenomenon of light and its unique nature, especially because it comes from our star king as the Sun, and as has been proven it is our undoubted source of life for this wonderful planet which we have called Earth, and which has become our precious home.
As you may have noticed in our way we could get with electromagnetic type radiations which only carry energy, and corpuscular type radiations called in this way by the fact of having the presence of mass when its energy propagates from one side to another, in this way has been classified to these indispensable radiations in our lives.
The present article seeks to continue nurturing us on these forms of energy manifestations, taking into account as the previous important analysis principle given by the optical science and its elementary conceptualization of light ray whose trajectory is in a straight line, and as we see this principle impregnated by the abstract understanding of geometry, and the same fundamental branch of mathematics.
Undoubtedly, we can express that we have been able to nourish ourselves with wonderful knowledge of radiations such as; ultraviolet, infrared, X-rays, gamma, microwaves, radio waves, alpha (α), beta (β), cosmic and laser rays, vital radiations for the development of our daily activities, and also as we know used many of them to improve our health, despite being some ionizing, but, we have had the ability to implement it to our advantage.
In this opportunity we will analyze in a general way a generation of rays very well known by us, and this is due to the fact that since some time ago it has been present in our homes in some electronic devices such as the TV or CPU monitor, these electronic instruments managed to captivate our attention, and with it, becoming essential parts of our lives, since through them we can entertain, inform or educate ourselves, highlighting in this way the extraordinary nexus previously mentioned, that is, the science-technology nexus.
The very recognized electronic device such as television we can say that it originated thanks to the principle of the formation of cathode rays, highlighting also that the transmission of the signal of such devices, such as the television is made thanks to the use of a certain range of the electromagnetic spectrum such as radio waves or specifically television, and also the operation in terms of the generation of images is largely due to the implementation of cathode rays at least in its beginnings in the old devices.
Undoubtedly one of the most recognized radiations for all of us are the X-rays, and these rays were discovered by the German physicist Roentgen when he was studying the behavior of a new ray for that time, i.e., cathode rays.
The cathode ray tubes we can say that they have their origin in the famous tube of William Crookes, and later you can see an image similar to this tube, in the area of television these tubes are usually known as picture tube or specifically screen, this application as we said gives rise to the formation of images in these famous electronic devices, expanding to other technological applications.
With the passage of time and after many studies, it was proven that cathode rays turned out to be currents of electrons formed between the cathode and anode inside a vacuum-resistant glass tube like the one used by Crookes, this great character also determined that these rays without the presence of a magnetic field propagate in a straight line.
This type of rays in the same way as the other radiations analyzed have left their important mark in the history of mankind, when talking about cathode rays we think of the old television, and how not to do it if this device since several decades ago has become an important member of our families, without leaving aside the old computer monitors or computers, however, these electronic devices in our days have evolved, and now, do not use these cathode ray tubes, but no doubt, these tubes marked the beginning of a fascinating era of our existence.
To describe the formation of this type of rays it is necessary to point out several components that are involved in the generation of these cathode rays, among which we have; a vacuum resistant glass tube, and inside the same is the cathode (-) and the anode (+), between these elements is produced the electron current that of course gives rise to cathode rays, then show the formation of these rays from the cathode (-) to the anode (+) as we can see in the following figure 1.
Figure 1. Formation of cathode rays
In the previous figure 1, you can visualize the process of cathode ray generation, how the cloud of electrons that originate in the cathode (-) after it is heated by a certain filament or electrical resistance and then are attracted by another electrode, the anode (+), thus originating the current of electrons observed in the cathode ray formation process.
To continue analyzing cathode rays, it is important to know the famous tube designed by Crookes, which is made of very resistant crystal or glass and almost entirely in vacuum, where we can see the presence of an electrode, cathode (-) and another electrode, anode (+), both attached to an electric potential both negative and positive respectively, then, when the power difference is considerably high, a fluorescence begins to be observed as we can see in the following figure 2.
Figure 2. Crookes cathode ray tube
In the previous figure 2, we could observe how William Crookes was able to carry out a large number of tests or experiments in which he was able to determine important characteristics or properties related to cathode rays, among these we can mention some such as, regardless of the material of which the cathode (-) is made, this element will generate cathode rays with similar characteristics, and also these rays, not being influenced by any magnetic field, are able to propagate in a straight line.
If we review the history of cathode rays we will find another important character in the field of science such as J.J. Thomson. Thomson, it is important to emphasize that many were the debates caused by the nature of cathode rays, since many perceived them as a type of electromagnetic radiation (and this for having similar characteristics to that of light), this led Thomson to conduct experiments which he used to convince his colleagues of the time, and determined that these rays were and are negatively charged particles, then, in general, they are current or jets of electrons as we could observe in figure 1, therefore, it is important that we can know another type of cathode ray tube as observed in the following figure 3.
Figure 3. Cathode rays originated by J.J.Thomson
It is important to point out that both Crookes and Thomson were able to determine similar characteristics and the same is related to the action of a certain magnetic field on these rays or current of electrons, where said magnetic field is able to change or deviate the rectilinear directionality of these cathode rays as we can see in the following figure 4.
Figure 4. Action of a magnetic field on cathode rays
In the previous figure 4, you could see the action of a magnetic field on the change of the directionality of such cathode rays, this important aspect or feature was rightly implemented in the generation of images for television, and in this way it is possible to make the cathode rays can project some image transported by sweeping certain photosensitive areas such as those represented by the screens of such electronic devices.
In many of our homes we can still find the action of cathode ray tubes, either in old televisions or computer monitors, and in this way we are reliable witnesses of the usefulness of these rays in our lives, then show an example of the application of these cathode rays in the following figure 5.
Figure 5. Cathode ray tube in our homes
Undoubtedly my dear readers, each one of us could say that the previous example represents a historical fact since it allowed us to take a gigantic step from the technological point of view and above all for the fact related to the transmission of any information or image from any place of the planet Earth to another, highlighting with it an essential characteristic of the different rays analyzed in all this journey.
In this opportunity we continue to deepen in relation to the knowledge of any type of energy generation in the form of ray with rectilinear propagation as we did in this opportunity with the cathode rays, and its important application in the field of technology, where they were indispensable in the creation of the well known electronic devices such as televisions and other types of electronic devices.
It is important to highlight that cathode rays were initially considered as possible electromagnetic radiation due to their behavioral relationship with white or visible light, however, J.J. Thomson, through a series of practical experiments, managed to convince the physicists of the time that these manifestations were currents or jets of electrons that were emitted from a cathode (-) to another electrode, an anode (+).
This was best observed in figure 1, and its application was observed in each of the subsequent figures 2, 3, and 5, and thus we met another manifestation of energy or ray with utility in some devices in our homes, and with these cathode rays we say goodbye to this very rich and important thematic series, as it has represented a wonderful journey through the world of optical science and its vital phenomenon of light, because as we have said, without light we would hardly exist in this beautiful home which we have called planet Earth.
Until another installment my dear readers of Hive.blog, especially to the members of the great community of #Stemsocial, which receives the support of another wonderful community as #curie, so I highly recommend to be part of this exemplary project, as they allow us to highlight the wonderful work of academia and the enormous work of the entire field of science.
Note: All images are my own and were created using Power Point applications and the animated gif was created using the PhotoScape application, as for the photographic images used in Figure 5, they were captured by the HUAWEI Y9 cell phone.
Bibliographic references consulted and recommended