3 Structures of Private Messengers, how they work and their Pros/Cons

in #techlast year

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Today I thought I would talk about messengers, specifically, the different types of messengers and how they work. The goal here is to help give an understanding of various privacy and security focused messengers, but in order to make the right choice on which one you need to understand how they work and the differences under the hood. I guess I bring this up because often times in the privacy community you hear about metadata and a few other aspects like registration requirements, and then are given recommendations based on that. I don’t mean to throw shade or anything, and understanding that stuff is important in picking a private messaging platform, but personally I think it is vital to understand how any given messenger works before you choose one.

There are effectively three types of messengers in the wild: centralized messengers, federated & self hosted messengers, as well as peer to peer messengers. Sure, things have a habit of not fitting into neat little categories, but I hope I’ll be able to lay them out in an understandable way. Also, this is completely focused on the niche of private messengers, so for all these examples assume that end to end encryption is active.

With that, before I break down the different types of messengers, lets quickly go over how a message is sent. The structure obviously changes across messenger structures, however, the concept is still the same. The message starts on the sending device, which is typed up and then encrypted so nobody can read it except the intended recipient. Lets say we sent it from one phone to another, the message is encrypted on that phone, sent through one or more servers, received by the intended recipient, and then de-crypted by the recipient on their phone or other device they are using. Now, I know you might be thinking, “but wait, peer to peer messengers don’t go through servers,” and while it’s true they don’t go through messenger servers they do go through the internet which is made up of servers and switches that send that encrypted message in packets, so there is still devices to consider.

With this understood, picking a messenger structure really comes down to the following questions:

  • Does my messenger require identifying information to setup?
  • How much metadata is created, and how much of it is stored?
  • How easy can the messenger be taken offline?
  • Can the messenger intercept my data if it was compromised or malicious?
  • Do I want to self host my messenger, or, would I prefer a trusted third party unaffiliated with the messenger hosted my data?
  • Is my IP hidden from the messenger host and/or from the person I’m messaging?
  • Can my device be online 24/7, or, can I wait for messages to be delivered?
  • How much data do I want to be in control of?

Centralized Messengers


Alright, now we can start getting into the three types of messengers, starting with centralized messengers. These function when you register with a centralized service which handles the distribution of messages. In this case, the message would be encrypted on your device so only your recipient can read the message, the message would then be sent from your device through an ISP to the messenger host, which accepts the incoming message. The messenger then holds on to the encrypted message, but cannot read it, until it sees the recipient is online where it send it through the recipient’s ISP to their device before their device (and only their device) de-crypts it and reads the message.


A good example of this centralized messengers is Signal, which I’ll use to demonstrate it’s pro’s and cons. First, like in Signal’s case, it’s really easy to set up an account. You don’t need to try to host anything or have a process on your device running 24/7, you just register and Signal handle’s all the legwork in the background. It also will hold any messages you send, and will deliver them the second the recipient is online. With a server routing the messages the IP address of the message sender is also not revealed to the receiver of the message.

However, there are also some drawbacks with centralized messengers. First off, when you register they usually require identifying information, such as a phone number or email. Similarly, centralized messengers by their nature get all of your metadata. Whether they store it or not, because of their structure they get data such as when messages come in, their size, times the user was online, and which IP they connected with. Now, because centralized messengers have such a weak point this is often a focus of their goals to store as little of this information as possible, again using Signal as the example, they seem to do well with it; but it’s inherent in their structure so it’s still a risk since you are trusting all of your data to the people who run the messenger.

Last, a centralized messenger is likely the easiest to compromise or shut down. Even though a messenger is end to end encrypted, if the messenger was compromised or malicious even though the data is encrypted you could really be sending them to be unencrypted by the server, which then re-encrypts the and sends it to the recipient (known as a man in the middle attack). With that said, using Signal as an example, though I haven't reviewed Signal’s code I doubt it would be easy for Signal to be compromised by a man in the middle attack; but it’s technically possible and may be more likely depending on the centralized messenger of your choosing. Regardless, however, it’s still the easiest form of messenger to block/attack, as Iran did with Signal not that long ago since it’s one centralized group they had to block instead of a loose and ever changing group of devices.

Self Hosted Messengers



Next, let’s talk about federated and self hosted messengers. Now, I don’t mean to be confusing, since some messengers can fall into one category but not the other, but lets break this down as well. Network wise, these messengers work exactly the same as a centralized messenger, data travels from a device to a server or group of servers, which then route the message to the intended recipient. In this case, however, the server is not operated by the messenger developers but instead you or a third party.

Being self hosted or hosted by a third party is true of both self hosted and federated messengers, however, being federated means that it can communicate with other unaffiliated servers. This operates just like email in where anybody can get a domain and a server, then can send a message to anybody else who is using the same platform regardless of whether they are on the same server or not. For example, I could set up messanger1.com with Matrix and then register the account [email protected]. Then, somebody else could set up a server at messanger2.com and the account on it [email protected] and despite the servers being hosted by different people the accounts on the different servers could message each other or join the same groups.


So, what are the pros and cons of using a self hosted federated messenger. More often than not, if you’re going to go through the trouble, (in my opinion) federated self hosted messengers would likely be the right choice because it’s nice to be able to talk people outside of those to others you’ve invited to your server – but if you do end up hosting a non-federated messenger then just disregard the applicable federated pros/cons.

Firstly, the biggest benefit of self hosting systems is the fact that you are in control of your data, or presumably, you have delegated control to somebody who is trusted. In either case, you don’t need to worry about what some unknown group is doing with your data. Similarly, while it likely won’t prevent the government from giving a subpoena to your ISP, hosting provider, and/or domain registrar – or from somebody who has hacked into the server or those services from obtaining such info, there would be no requirements to hand your personal details over to other users of the service such as a phone number or email address.

Additionally, unlike centralized messengers, anything self hosted (be it federated or not) is really hard to block or attack on a mass scale. Sure, it’s easy to block one company and shut down everything, but it’s really hard to find everybody who’s hosting a small server for their family and get them to stop – even if that small server can communicate with any other small and large servers on the network.

Last, similar to centralized messengers, the server does all the heavy lifting. Once a server is set up all that you would need to do is download an app, sign in, and use the messenger. If the intended recipient isn’t online it will store the encrypted messenge and pass it along once they’re online. Having such a setup where the server handles the routing of messengers also prevents the IP address of the senders device from being revealed to the receivers device.

There are, however, some drawbacks to this sort of messenger structure as well – the first of which is cost and time. In the case of self hosting, you will likely need a domain, and definitely will need to either set up a home server and get a static IP or pay for a VPS.

The other main drawback to these messengers is metadata. Centralized messengers often focus really hard on minimizing metadata, such as the date of a message, size of a message, and who it’s going to; however, the self hosted messenger projects often focus less on that. The expectation is that if you’re self hosting then you’re the only one with access to it, but that’s not always the case and one of the biggest complaints about the federated messenger platform Matrix. First, if you’re relying on a host that you are not providing and that you don’t personally know the provider (say through Matrix.org) then you can only trust them as much as you can trust any other centralized provider, except there’s more metadata being stored. Similarly, if you regularly message people on other servers, even if you run your own server, the other server receiving messages from accounts on your server is also getting the same metadata – while the other server is presumably not in your control. While the message itself is still end to end encrypted, and the dangers of metadata against your privacy are largely dependent on the situation you are in, at the end of the day more data you in other people’s hands you don’t necessarily trust is a risk to privacy.

P2P Messengers


Last, there are peer to peer messengers. Unlike in centralized, self hosted, or federated messenger, there are no servers involved in peer to peer messengers. In this case the device which intends to send a message looks to see if it can locate the device that is receiving the message (usually through DHT), and then, if the recipient device is online then it is sent strait to it without any servers involved aside from ISPs.


Like with the other messenger structures, let’s start the pros and cons with the benefits. First, there are no worries about metadata (aside from general ISP logging). Since there’s no centralized server to route messages, the sender and the receiver are the only ones to hold such data, so as long as you trust the other person you’re messaging then there’s no metadata being put in third party hands while also not having to set up and operate any sort of server.

Next, there’s no need to worry about registering with identifying details like a name, email, or phone. Since it’s decentralized it will pretty much be guaranteed to require nothing but a private/public key-pair generated on the device with no identifying information whatsoever.

Last, it’s extremely hard to block or otherwise shut down peer to peer messaging services. Not only are there no one group of centralized servers, but there’s not even home servers or the like, it’s just a bunch of random devices communicating with each other.

There are, however, drawbacks to such a messenger structure. First, and likely the largest, is the fact that any messages sent cannot go through unless both the sender and receiver have an internet connection at the same time. Secondly, since there are no central servers routing messages, the IP address of the sender is known by the receiver and vice versa. IP addresses can be hidden by routing data through Tor like the messenger Briar does; however, routing through Tor makes the messenger easier to block and also prevents audio/video calls.

Last, because peer to peer messengers generally rely on DHT and private/public key-pairs there’s no easy usernames. In this case, with math and DHT, you would get your long username of random numbers and letters and share it through a QR code or by copy pasting, then somebody else would import it into their contacts and set it’s name. Once the name is added to contacts it then becomes super easy to use, but it’s still more complicated to get set up then a simple username or email.

Quick Tangent
If you want to direct information to a device, you need some way identify it, and then translate that identification to it’s IP address. This, however, requires devices to agree on one method of identification. Generally speaking, it can be done in three different ways:

  • You can delegate human memorable identifies to a centralized service, just like ICANN who has ultimate authority on which standard domain names point where. People then rent domains according to the rules put fourth by that centralized service.
  • You can delegate human memorable identifies to a decentralized service like a blockchain, such as crypto based domain names. In that event, you would use crypto to purchase an unclaimed domain and update the decentralized ledger with location you want it to point to.
  • You can use math to generate private and public keys, and then share those public key (or the hashes of those) to a distributed table like Tor or I2P domain names. Those keys can be generated by anybody anytime for free, but are long and not human memorable.

P2P messengers generally use the third for functionality, but those identifies must copied and pasted or shared with something like a QR code.


Well, that’s all in regards to talking about messenger structures. The different structures of various messengers, as well as the different ways you can use them, make them almost impossible to compare unless you look at your specific needs. Now, hopefully when looking at your messenger options you can understand how it will work and make the right choice including structure in the qualities you compare it on. I wrote this to help you understand what your options are and make your own decisions, and this is where you can close this tab now if you want. That said, I felt it wouldn’t be complete if I didn’t quickly go over what I would personally choose for messengers in a handful of situations.

My personal messenger highlights:

  • If you want a messenger that is super easy to use and share, Signal may be a great choice.

  • If you want a centralized style (*see notes) messenger that does not require any identifying information, Session may be a great choice.

  • If you want to self host, and be able to join groups or message anybody who is on the same platform, Matrix may be a great choice.

  • If you want a lightweight self hosted messenger to message people only on your server – or federated with a small list of handpicked servers, XMPP may be a great choice.

  • If you want a P2P messenger that allows voice/video calls, or Tor is at risk of being blocked, then Tox may be a great choice.

  • If you want a P2P messenger that hides your IP via Tor, or want to message through Bluetooth or LAN in addition to through the internet, then Briar may be a good choice.

*Note on Session
Session is not exactly a centralized messenger. Session is run on the decentralized Oxen network, formerly known as the Loki network. The Oxen network anonymizes your IP through onion routing and then locates your device like a peer to peer messenger would. However, the Oxen network will hold onto the message on behalf of the sender until the recipient comes online – so even though it’s structure is probably closer to a peer to peer messenger then a centralized messenger, it operates from the users perspective like a centralize messenger.


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