The construction or elaboration of facilities in a production unit has an intrinsic and irrelevant objective, that of providing accommodation and comfort to the animals and therefore, allowing and facilitating the work to the producer, in terms of feeding, cleaning, milking, handling the manure, among others. Its characteristics will be determined by the needs and availability of the farm, as well as its owner and administrator, ie, for example, materials available in the area, numbers of animals to be housed, financial availability, breed to be exploited, among others.
On the other hand, for proper construction of facilities and equipment must take into account the climatic factors that determine the area, such as temperature, rainfall, humidity. This allows to foresee the control of lighting and ventilation. Since in cold climates the orientation of the facilities must be north-south, to ensure that the sun maintains a comfortable and adequate temperature for the animals, as well as in hot climates it must be from east to west.
These facilities can be:
In general, three types of barns are built, which will depend on the use assigned to them, such as for animals completely confined or enclosed, those that are designed for semi-confinement and those used for milking.
2.- Accommodations for calves and mutes
It is the site that is offered to the animal for breeding and release, where they are guaranteed protection and health, because their management is of care at this stage of the animal's life.
3.- Warehouse for food storage
It is based on the fact that the farm has an installation that guarantees the protection of salts, minerals, hay, concentrates, etc; where there is humidity and where there is control of pests, like rodents. In these installations it is recommended to use wood or pallet bases to stack or group the products, but never against the walls or in conjunction with poisons and fertilizers.
4.- Reservoir for the protection of equipment and tools
It is a site that is used to protect all the implements and tools used in the daily tasks of the farm, such as buckets for milking, cleaning implements, shovels, machetes, wheelbarrows and other minor equipment that the unit has. production.
5.- Sleeves and bretes
It is the installation that is designed for the handling and driving of the animal, where the sanitary plan is most easily applied.
Its design and size will depend on the number of animals with which the farm counts, as well as on the practices that are required to be executed, as it is an installation that can be used, not only for the enclosure of the animals, but also to perform practices such as marking, dehorning, castrating and others. As is the area that is used for the selection of animals in the sale process.
These are also considered as facilities and consist of dividing the area of the farm into small lots of land, in order to distribute the available grass, either for grazing or for cutting, in the case of practices such as silage and / or or haymaking, if a cote grass is concerned. Pastures can be divided with electric fencing or traditional, with the use of shelves, bridesmaids and barbed wire.
However, within a production unit are equipment such as:
Its construction is advised to protect them from the sun and rain, since they will be used to place salt and minerals to cattle, its design is varied and will depend on the purpose and purpose of the farm.
In this case, for the construction of this equipment should be provided a material that does not allow the fermentation of food, to prevent disease. In general, materials are used for its construction, such as concrete, wood and plastic. However, it is advisable to clean these equipment daily, eliminating the food that was not consumed by cattle.
The material used in its manufacture is similar to that of the feeders and similarly, sanitation measures must be applied, and clean and fresh water must be supplied daily.
This equipment is very useful in the handling of animals, since through it you can perform practices such as: moored, downed, for the examination of livestock, as well as to hold the team in the process of taming. In general terms it facilitates the immobilization of the animal for the application of some high risk practice.
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